6.3

Summary of data points and potential sources

The data sources currently in the Toolkit are presented in the table.

The following table is based on the data sources currently in the Toolkit. This will be augmented at the time of the dissemination workshop, in consultation with the TTLs.

Associated Barrier/ Opportunity

Data Required

Data Source

Primary

Secondary

Lack of last mile infrastructure

  • Intended services to be rolled out for digital government service delivery
  • Potential internet data consumption of intended services

Discussions with partner government

 

  • Lack of last mile infrastructure
  • Lack of digital literacy
  • Lack of trust in modern technology
  • Use of ICT modes segregated by sex

 

  • International Telecommunication Union (ITU) data on ICT data by gender (see ITU Statistics) on data on internet use by sex.
  • GSMA also has had two surveys (2010 and 2015) to measure gender gap in mobile ownership and usage.
  • Lack of last mile infrastructure
  • Presence of last-mile coverage of telecom/ internet coverage

 

Private sector: Example - Airtel’s Open Network database

Government databases: Example - India BharatNet project

  • Lack of electricity infrastructure
  • Presence of electricity infrastructure

 

Government databases. For example, see Data.gov.In

  • Affordability of Voice/Data services
  • Tariffs of data/ voice services

 

  • Tariffs of 500 MB/1 GB data consumption, offered by largest telecom service provider, by market share.
  • Affordability of Voice/Data services
  • Affordability of electricity
  • Device affordability
  • Cost of commute
  • Per capita income by sex

 

  • National Statistics Organizations of respective countries or other limited surveys done to calculate the average monthly incomes of males and females respectively.
  • Affordability in International Connectivity
  • Number of women working abroad as proportion of total labor force
  • Number of men working abroad as proportion of total labor force

 

  • National labor force surveys
  • Labor force surveys in destination countries
  • International Labor Organization (ILO) surveys or databases
  • Affordability in International Connectivity
  • International call termination rates

 

  • International termination rate benchmark studies
  • Affordability of electricity
  • Power tariffs

 

  • State/ private electricity utility data
  • Affordability of electricity
  • Power consumption by households

 

  • Sales data from private companies that sell standalone household power generators
  • Device affordability
  • Device prices

 

  • Prices of largest mobile manufacturers, by market share
  • Periodic studies released by organizations like GSMA.
  • Cost of commute, time of commute
  • Transportation methods, per km travel cost and popularity of modes for women
  • Surveys on the target population
  •  
  • Digital maps such as Google maps
  • Local transportation authorities and/or companies
  • Time constraints
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (childcare facilities)
  • Details of typical women’s lifestyle: economic activities, reproductive tasks, flexible and rigid times for activities, primary and secondary responsibilities for child care
  • Surveys of the target population
  • Focus group discussions with small groups of women representatives of the target population
  • Previous studies done on the same or similar communities
  •  
  • Time constraints (childcare)

 

  • Fertility rates
  • Surveys of the target population
  • Focus group discussions with small groups of women representatives of the target population
  • Previous studies done on the same or similar communities
  • Census/ National Statistical organizations
  • Time constraints (commute time)
  • Commute time by mode of transportation
  • Surveys of the target population
  • Digital maps such as Google maps
  • Lack of relevant content
  • Priority of women in terms of digital government service delivery or other ICT interventions; services that have the highest ability to improve women’s lives
  • Focus group discussions with small groups of women representatives of the target population
  • Previous studies done on the same or similar communities
  • Lack of relevant content
  • Current usage of digital government services, by sex
  • Primary data collection through FGDs with targeted citizens
  • Government data of e-service delivery users (if available)
  • Previous studies done in the same or similar communities
  • Lack of relevant content
  • Current usage of offline government services, by type of service and sex
  • Focus group discussions with groups of women representatives of the target population
  • Government data (if available)
  • Previous studies done on the same or similar communities.
  • Lack of comprehensible content
  • Average number of languages known by men and women; and name of languages most commonly known

 

  • Census
  • Lack of comprehensible content
  • Lack of digital literacy
  • Barriers to accessing RTI
  • Female and male literacy rates

 

  • Census
  • Lack of breeder/ prior identification documents
  •  
  • Gender gap in documentation
  • Representative survey of target population
  • Civil registries/ national databases (if sex disaggregated data is available)
  • Social constraints on economic/ residential mobility
  • Social constraints on interactions between the sexes
  • Male and Female LFPR

 

  • International Labor Organization, ILOSTAT Database for more
  • Country Census databases
  • Data from surveys done by National Statistical organizations
  • Social constraints on interactions between the sexes
  • Social constraints on economic/ residential mobility
  • Social constraints on economic/ residential mobility
  • FGDs/ IDIs with representatives of women groups/ gender experts

 

  • Social constraints on economic/ residential mobility
  • Population distribution in rural/ urban areas by sex

 

  • Census databases
  • Social constraints on physical mobility
  • Issues such as:
  • Who bears the primary 'responsibility' for dealing with issues requiring interface with government/ people outside the home?
  • Women’s role in the domestic/ social/ economic sphere
  • Are women free to leave the home without a male chaperone or permission?
  • Is there discrimination against women who visit government offices?
  • What is the ratio of female-male employment in government offices?
  • FGDs with women of varying education and income levels
  • FGDs and key informant interviews with local community leaders, experts, information officers and civil servants
  • Observation and interviews with government office visitors
  • Sociological studies from the country in question (or comparable country based on location, level of development, HDI rank etc.
  • Public sector employment data
  • Gender gap in perceived need for identification?

 

  • FGDs with women/local communities could be done to understand perceptions.
  • Previous studies/ surveys on existing identity cards or surveys on national identity done in comparable countries.
  • Social constraints on interactions between the sexes
  • Fear of data privacy violation preventing uptake of services
  • Can women leave the home without a chaperone?
  • Is sexual harassment in public spaces common?
  • Is it common for women to work outside the home in non-family based employment?
  • FGD/ IDIs with target women and gender experts
  • Previously conducted studies on mobility and sexual harassment
  • Social norms against women’s ICT use
  • Attitudes in local communities on women’s ICT use
  • FGDs; attitude surveys of the target population
  • Previous studies done on the target communities
  • Gender bias against women pursuing STEM education and ICT related employment
  • Low representation of women in STEM
  • Percentage enrolment of women in engineering courses in the country

 

  • Education sector statistics by gender
  • Gender bias against women pursuing STEM education and ICT related employment
  • Low representation of women in STEM
  • Opportunity to increase representation of women in the information security domain
  • Number of women working in the IT/ ITES domain as a proportion of total employees in the sector

 

  • Data from IT/ ITES provider companies
  • Gender bias against women pursuing STEM education and ICT related employment
  • Are teachers aware of the need to encourage girls actively to pursue careers in STEM?
  • Do schools conduct any awareness programs for parents on girls and STEM?
  • Do families and local community (men, women, authorities, etc.) have negative perceptions towards women and girls pursuing education and jobs in ICT fields or STEM subjects?
  • Interviews and FGDs with Local gender experts, school parent- teacher organizations, community based organizations
  • Previous studies done in the target geographies
  • Discriminatory laws and procedures
  • Presence of discriminatory laws and procedures
  •  
  • Government documents on procedures for obtaining identification; policies of mobile network operators
  • Fear of data privacy violation preventing uptake of services

Adequacy of privacy laws

  • Discussions with privacy/ digital activists
  • National laws, media coverage of salient issues
  • Fear of data privacy violation preventing uptake of services
  • % of mobile money agents who are male, prevalence of practice of men having multiple mobile connections to their name

 

  • Data from MNOs
  • Fear of data privacy violation preventing uptake of services
  • Information if women are afraid of sharing contact details with men and prevalence of sexual harassment over the phone
  • FGDs with women in target communities, discussions with local gender experts

 

  • Gender blind online safety legislation
  • If the current legislation adequately addresses online gender based violence
  • Discussions with local cyber/ gender experts
  • Relevant legislation and policy documents
  • Gender blind online safety legislation
  • Lack of enforcement capacity to handle online gender based violence
  • Lack of awareness of cyber-safety/ information security/ privacy threats

 

  • Prevalence of complaints against online gender based violence and their resolution (as reflected by number of people charge-sheeted)
  • Proportion of cyber-crime reported by women
  • Types of cyber-crime reported by women by type? [ Sexual harassment, versus phishing versus malware etc.]

 

  • National crime bureau data
  • Lack of enforcement capacity to handle online gender based violence
  • Presence of cyber-crimes unit; reporting mechanism for gender based online crimes (e.g. hotline/ special police desk); ability of staff to deal with gender based violence, ease with which victims are able to report the crime
  • Discussions with victims of cyber gender based violence, gender/ cyber-experts
  • Internal reports on law enforcement authorities
  • Lack of awareness of cyber-safety/ information security/ privacy threats
  • Ascertaining the prevalence of a gender gap in knowledge of how to deal with cyber risks online, gender gap in knowledge on how to report cybersecurity and online safety issues to law enforcement officers
  • FGDs, discussion with cyber-experts would help reveal answers to the qualitative questions.

 

  • Lack of awareness of cyber-safety/ information security/ privacy threats
  • % of female online users who are aware of data consent mechanisms/clauses; % of women who know what general issues these clauses cover, and are aware of the implications for the security of their personal information
  • Surveys of internet users, collecting sex disaggregated data

 

  • Lack of financial inclusion
  • Male/ female access to bank accounts (commercial/ payments or small finance banks)

 

  • Lack of financial inclusion
  • Reach of ATMs in urban/ rural areas
  •  
  • Website of banking regulators of the respective country
  • Lack of digital literacy
  • Lack of trust in modern technology
  • Gender gaps in digital skills [measured at different competency levels]
  • Testing/ surveys based on self-reported digital skills

 

  • Lack of complementary non- ICT skills
  • Skill gap in women entrepreneurs/ coders in ICT domain
  • Local gender experts to determine awareness, skills (technical and non-technical) women need to develop
  • Targeted interviews with businesses

 

  • Lack of trust in modern technology
  • Self-reported barriers in use of digital tools
  • FGDs/ Surveys with target population
  • GSMA also has had two surveys (2010 and 2015) to measure gender gap in mobile ownership and usage and barriers hindering female access.
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (Access to finance)
  • Availability of finance for female/ male entrepreneurs

 

  • Previous studies on access to finance to male/ female entrepreneurs
  • Data from banking regulators/ sourced from banks/ MFIs
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (Access to finance)
  • Ease of access to finance
  • Discussions with female entrepreneurs, banking experts
  • Central bank requirements on loan disbursal, review of private sector loan pre-conditions
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (Access to finance)
  • Presence of special schemes for female entrepreneurs in ICT, proportion of female beneficiaries of such schemes

 

  • Government websites on MSME development
  • Data from private financial institutions –banks/ MFIs
  • Central bank requirements
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (Access to finance)
  • Number of male/ female digital entrepreneurs accessing funds through angel networks, venture funds

 

  • Data from private venture funds/ angel networks

 

  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (childcare facilities)
  • Availability of child care facilities near homes, incubator program locations
  • Cost of child care facilities per day and if it is subsidized
  • Interviews with emerging and established female entrepreneurs, managers of incubator ecosystem
  • Government maternity guidelines to see if child care facilities are subsidized
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (business registration process)
  • Ease of getting business registration for female digital entrepreneurs

 

  • Website and staff at government business registration offices, female business networks
  • Gender blind/ male centric environment for digital entrepreneurs (lack of access to networks and markets)
  • Presence of associations/ formal/ informal networks of digital entrepreneurs and the representation of women on them
  • Interviews with active members of formal networks to understand representation of women on them
  • Interviews with female entrepreneurs

 

  • Lack of processes in decision-making that encourage women’s inclusion
  • If priority is given to gender-mainstreaming in ICT/ sector policies; if yes, the specific goals and targets set for gender-based outcomes; sex-disaggregated indicators being monitored; if gender budgeting is being undertaken

 

  • ICT sector policy documents
  • Lack of processes in decision-making that encourage women’s inclusion
  • Lack of institutional capacity on gender
  • If policy consultations are held with representatives of women’s groups, number of gender experts represented on policy committees, if gender analysis is conducted before policy decisions are taken
  • Key stakeholder interviews
  • ICT sector policy documents
  • Lack of institutional capacity on gender
  • Representation of gender experts/ women in the relevant departments and line ministries, number of trainings undertaken for relevant personnel to mainstream gender
  • Key stakeholder interviews

Organizational data from the government

  • Lack of sex-disaggregated data on ICT
  • Availability of sex-disaggregated data relevant to the ICT sector (including ownership/ use and workforce data)

 

  • Analysis of the following statistics-
  • Supply-side statistics
  • National labor force surveys
  • Nationally representative consumption side surveys
  • Nationally representative education sector surveys
  • Existing ICT gender gap assessments
  • Nationally representative demand side surveys
  • Qualitative studies on gender barriers to ICT use
  • Qualitative studies on gender inequalities in general
  • Barriers to accessing RTI
  • Awareness of RTI among women, level of political and civic participation among women
  • FGD/ Surveys with women of varying education and income levels

 

  • Barriers to accessing RTI
  • Simplicity of RTI procedures/ accessibility through multiple modes, availability of templates for application
  • FGDs and key informant interviews with women, local community leaders, experts, information officers and civil servants.

RTI/ATI legislation (if it exists) and published procedures/ protocols

  • Lack of awareness and capacity in IPR
  • Gender gap in-
  • applications for patents/ copyrights/ trademarks
  • infringements or disputes originated by women
  • representation of women in design and development fields in the ICT sector

 

  • Lack of awareness and capacity in IPR
  • Gender gap in awareness of IPR processes and protocols
  • Surveys of women working in development and design of computer programs and ICT modes etc.

 

  • Opportunity of Gender-sensitivity in PPP
  • If gender has been mainstreamed in the current PPP legal framework

 

  • PPP model agreements

 

  • Opportunity to ensure QoS indicators account for women’s differential usage
  • Gender differences in internet use (mode and function)
  • Surveys of QoS perceptions among men vs women; QoS tests conducted on a random sample of male and female broadband users (including down/upload speeds, jitter, latency, packet loss measurements)
  • National surveys of broadband usage among men vs women

Opportunity to increase representation of women in the information security domain

Current representation of women in the information security workforce

 

Employment data from IT companies/ industry association

Government employment figures